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Weekly Update from The Special Jurisdiction of Peace

11 January - 18 January 2019

For The Guernica Group, the work developed by the Integral System of Truth, Justice, Reparation and No Repetition (SIVJRNR) of Colombia is essential to carry out and consolidate the Peace Accord. Victims are the central pillar and the guarantee for the need to define the truth and ensure accountability for key episodes of violence committed during the armed conflict, as the basis of long-lasting reconciliation. The Special Jurisdiction for Peace (JEP) has the potential to develop new legal precedents that could reshape the work of international criminal lawyers and generate a valuable legacy for the whole Latin American region.


Accordingly, The Guernica Group will provide weekly media updates from the Special Jurisdiction for Peace in order to expand the JEP’s outreach and generate debate around the cases, the judicial proceedings and the procedures of the different Chambers. The summary of the news will be published in both English and Spanish, and will include links to the relevant articles:


The Special Jurisdiction for Peace (JEP) expresses its rejection and deep concern in light of the attack against the Santander General Police Cadet School:


The JEP joins all the voices of rejection for this cruel and inhumane act and supports the victims and their families. The JEP has requested urgent clarification of the events, stating that these violent acts cannot truncate the construction of Peace


Special Jurisdiction for Peace, Communication to Public Opinion, 17 January 2019, access at: https://www.jep.gov.co/Sala-de-Prensa/Paginas/JEP-manifiesta-su-rechazo-frente-al -attached-against-the-School-General-Santander.aspx


The President of the Special Jurisdiction for Peace, Patricia Linares, takes stock of what has taken place during 2018, on the anniversary of its first year of operation:


A year ago, the 38 Magistrates of the Special Jurisdiction for Peace (JEP) were appointed to develop the most important postulates of this jurisdiction agreed upon in the Final Peace Agreement: doing justice, repairing victims, seeking the truth and preventing the violent acts, that left more than eight million victims as a result of half a century of conflict, from ever being repeated. As a commemoration of this event, on 16th January the JEP held an assessment of what happened in 2018 and the challenges it will face for this coming year.


One year after the beginning of the work of the Judiciary, 11,675 people have signed the submission to the JEP; of this total, 9,687 are ex-combatants of the FARC-EP, 1,938 of the Public Force, 38 are State Agents and 12 from Social Protest. On the other hand, the JEP received 168 reports that were delivered by organizations of victims and State entities, on events that occurred in the context and because of the armed conflict, information on which the JEP opened its first 5 major cases. The JEP has also stressed that these advances would not have been possible without the participation of the victims and the international community, and the support and follow-up of the United Nations, the Inter-American Human Rights System and the International Criminal Court (ICC).


Patricia Linares remembers that the JEP is "a Jurisdiction of Peace, not of revenge". Click here to discover 10 facts and anecdotes that you did not know about the JEP Special Jurisdiction for Peace, "JEP and victims: balance and projection", 17 January 2019, access at https://www.jep.gov.co/Sala-de-Prensa/Paginas/JEP-yV%C3%ADctimas. -Balance-and-Projection% C3% B3n.aspx


Special Jurisdiction for Peace, "" There are many actions, decisions and actions taken and adopted by the Jurisdiction in the last 10 months, "Patricia Linares, president of the JEP", 17 January 2019, access at: https: // www .jep.gov.co / Sala-de-Prensa / Pages / La-JEP-en-una-Jurisdicci% C3% B3n-para-la-Paz-Patricia-Linares.aspx


El Espectador: Drafting Colombia 2020, One year of the Special Jurisdiction for Peace, 16 January 2019, access at: https://colombia2020.elespectador.com/jep/un-ano-de-la-jurisdiccion-especial-para- peace


The challenges of the JEP, according to the International Center for Transitional Justice (ICTJ):


María Camila Moreno, Director of the International Center for Transitional Justice (ICTJ), made an intervention in the session organized by the JEP to take stock of its first year, listing the main challenges that will have to face the JEP in the next years. The main challenge, according to the ICTJ Director, is the visibility and legitimacy of the JEP in the eyes of the country.


For ICTJ, it is key that the JEP explains clearly its purpose to investigate, judge and punish all the participants of the conflict, even though the signing of the Peace Agreement has been with the FARC-EP, which includes the demobilization of the old AUC and civilians who participated in the criminal actions that took place within the framework of the armed conflict.


The Director also drew some specific challenges to some of the rooms. To the Recognition Room, for example, she suggested resolutions of conclusions within a year, since public opinion and victims expect results in the short and medium term. Another of the important challenges, according to the ICTJ, is that the Amnesty Chamber or Pardons orient their decisions based on international standards of Human Rights, International Humanitarian Law and International Criminal Law. Finally, Moreno called for attention to identify where the resources will come from to carry out the restorative sanctions in the territories and to guarantee the subsistence of those appearing in compliance with the sentences.


El Espectador: Drafting Colombia 2020, "The challenges of the JEP, according to the ICTJ", January 16, available at: https://colombia2020.elespectador.com/jep/los-desafios-de-la-jep-segun- el-ictj


The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) concludes a working visit to Colombia on the alarming situation of murders of social leaders and human rights defenders:


The IACHR made a working visit to Colombia from November 27 to 30, 2018, in order to verify and observe the situation of human rights defenders in the field. The Commission has repeatedly expressed its concern about the situation of violence faced by human rights defenders and social leaders in Colombia, particularly the serious challenges to guarantee that affect them.


The Ombudsman of Colombia revealed on 10th January that some 172 social leaders were killed during 2018, a fact that leads to 431 homicides being registered in the country since 2016. The JEP has stated that these murders, which mostly related to the defense of lands, damage the peace process initiated in November 2016. The President of the JEP, Patricia Linares, assured that the report delivered by the Prosecutor's Office last week about the murder and aggressions against the social leaders is the starting point for the construction and design of the large cases that the corporation is taking to sanction those responsible for these crimes.


Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR), "IACHR concludes working visit to Colombia on the alarming situation of murders of social leaders and human rights defenders", January 15, 2019, available at: http://www.oas.org/es/cidh/prensa/comunicados/2019/008.asp

Telesur,


More than 170 social leaders killed in Colombia in 2018", January 10, 2019, available at: https://www.telesurtv.net/news/colombia-asesinato-lideres-sociales-defensoria-pueblo-20190110-0034. Html


BluRadio, More than 50% of the murderers of social leaders are captured: Office of the Prosecutor, January 11, 2019, available at: https://www.bluradio.com/nacion/mas-del-50-de-los-asesinos-de- social-leaders-are-captured-fiscalia-202262-ie430


El Espectador: Drafting Colombia 2020, "Assassinations and aggressions of social leaders by the State, in data", January 12, 2019, available at: https://colombia2020.elespectador.com/jep/asesinatos-y-agresiones- de-lideres-sociales-por-parte-del-estado-en-datos


Sexual violence, a debate that is just beginning in the JEP:


In the early morning of September 2, 2005, three armed men, dressed in camouflage, carrying long weapons and covering their faces with scarves, arrived at the village Pueblitos, located in El Zulia, Norte de Santander. They broke into houses, stole their belongings and sexually abused two women. Orlando Guerrero Ortega, an army soldier responsible for this crime, was sentenced on November 23, 2016. While he was at the prison in Bucaramanga, he expressed his intention to take advantage of the JEP and requested to be transferred to a prison in a military unit, as allowed for by the Law of Amnesty and Differentiated Treatment.


In these cases, the JEP has to face an essential question: when is an act of sexual violence related to the conflict? In the case of soldier Guerrero Ortega, the Juridical Situations Definition Room of the JEP denied him the possibility of transferring to a military unit, in a decision that was not unanimous. The reason was that the military did not meet one of the essential requirements, and that is that the facts have to do with the conflict. The Chamber said that the crime committed by Guerrero was not a consequence of the skills acquired during the conflict and that it did not weigh on the decision to steal and rape the two women.


El Espectador: Editorial Board Colombia 2020, "Sexual violence: a debate that just begins in the JEP", January 14, 2019, available at: https://colombia2020.elespectador.com/jep/violencia-sexual-un-debate-que just-start-in-the-jep


The JEP requests a "palabrero or putchipu", a traditional authority through which to issue a judicial decision to a Traditional Authority of the municipality of Uribia:


The JEP has asked the Junta Mayor of Palabreros Wayuu, for the designation of a “palabrero” or "putchipu" to communicate a judicial decision to a Traditional Authority of the Municipality of Uribia, with reference to the indigenous Irguis José Fontalvo Peláez, who is linked to an extradition to the United States for the crime of drug trafficking. In May 2018, Irguis Fontalvo Peláez submitted a petition to the JEP to grant precautionary measures of protection so that extradition was not effective, whilst his situation was being defined by this Jurisdiction.


El Heraldo, JEP uses a palabrero to issue an indigenous decision, January 14, 2019, available at: https://www.elheraldo.co/la-guajira/jep-recurre-un-palabrero-para-emitir-decision- de-indigena-58823


Iván Márquez - ex-commander of the FARC, accuses the Government of Colombia of breaching the Peace Agreement. The Government rejects these criticisms, asking in turn for the JEP to define the situation of Márquez:


Márquez, chief negotiator of the FARC in the dialogues of Havana, reappeared in a video in which he stated that they were wrong to agree on the delivery of their weapons when they trusted that the State would comply with the agreement on the political, economic and social reincorporation of the ex-combatants.


Márquez considered that in the implementation the JEP this trust was destroyed, because whilst it was "conceived for all the parties involved in the conflict", in the legislative and constitutional formalization this has not been the case. "The institutions of the establishment resolved that it was only applicable to the guerrillas and the combatants, excluding from their Jurisdiction the Civil Agents of the State, the perpetrators of violence from the political leadership".


For its part, the Government has ensured that the agreement reached in Cuba has been modified to work for the Special Justice for Peace (JEP). The High Councilor for the Post-conflict stated that "the findings of Iván Márquez in a video made public do not correspond to the facts and do not contribute to the construction of peace". Likewise, the High Councilor asks the JEP to define the situation of Iván Márquez, who has "an obligation to participate in the implementation of the Peace Agreement and is not doing so".


BBC, Iván Márquez, one of the ex-commanders of the FARC, accuses the Colombian government of breaching the peace agreement, January 13, 2019, available at: https://www.bbc.com/mundo/noticias-america -latina-46853867


El Espectador: Drafting Colombia 2020, "Iván Márquez says that the State betrayed the Agreement but will fight for peace", January 12, 2019, available at: https://www.elespectador.com/noticias/politica/ivan-marquez- says-that-the-state-betrayed-the-agreement-but-that-will-fight-for-the-peace-article-833699


News Caracol, "Government rejected the criticisms of Iván Márquez against the peace agreement", January 13, 2019, available at: https://noticias.caracoltv.com/colombia/gobierno-rechazo-las-criticas-de-ivan- marquez-front-to-peace agreement


Caracol Radio, "Government asks JEP to define the situation of Iván Márquez", January 15, 2019, available at: http://caracol.com.co/radio/2019/01/15/nacional/1547507457_295670.htm


The JEP rejects the attack against Alfamir Castillo, a victim recognized in case 003: "Illegitimately presented as casualties in combat by agents of the State":


Last Friday, Mrs. Alfamir Castillo Bermúdez, special intervener and victim of extrajudicial execution of Case 003 as a mother, suffered an attack on a road between Palmira and Pradera, department of Valle del Cauca. Since 2012, Mrs. Castillo has benefitted from precautionary measures provided by the IACHR to protect her life.


The JEP has reiterated to the National Protection Unit (UNP) the urgent request for strengthening the security surrounding Mrs. Alfamir Castillo, in turn requiring the Office of the Prosecutor to immediately investigate the serious facts that threaten her life. To this end, the President of the JEP asked the Attorney General of the Nation to give priority to this new case of attacks against victims of the armed conflict and social leaders committed to the peace process.

Special Jurisdiction for Peace, "JEP rejects attack against Alfamir Castillo, victim recognized in case 003:" Illegitimately presented as casualties in combat by agents of the State ", and reiterates the request to the authorities to reinforce their protection and advance in the investigations ", January 12, 2019, available at: https://www.jep.gov.co/Sala-de-Prensa/Paginas/JEP-rechaza-atentado-contra-Alfamir-Castillo,-víctima- recognized-within-the-case-003.aspx


Extradition of the captured José Castro Chillambo alias "El Doctor", requested by the United States:


Colombia's Defense Minister, Guillermo Botero, confirmed last Saturday the capture of alias, "El Doctor", head of the FARC's residual group, Daniel Aldana. Extradition of "The doctor" (who previously had been admitted to the JEP) is requested by the Government of the United States for crimes of terrorism and aggravated kidnapping.


The Colombian, "Captured alias" The doctor ", dissident requested in extradition by EE. UU ", January 12, 2019, available at: http://www.elcolombiano.com/colombia/paz-y-derechos-humanos/capturan-a-alias-el-doctor-disidente-de-las-farc-ND10024119


The Nydia Erika Bautista Foundation headquarters in Bogotá are attacked:


The headquarters of the organization, which supports victims of enforced disappearance, was attacked last Saturday. The President of the Foundation has referred to the attack as "a message of warning and intimidation for her work in denouncing and defending the Human Rights of the victims of enforced disappearance before the ordinary courts and the Special Jurisdiction for Peace (JEP).


El Espectador, "Attack the headquarters of the Nydia Erika Bautista Foundation in Bogotá", January 12, 2019, available at: https://www.elespectador.com/noticias/judicial/atacan-sede-de-la-fundacion-nydia -erika -bautista-en-bogota-article-833765


ACTUALIZACIÓN SEMANAL SOBRE LA JURISDICCIÓN ESPECIAL PARA LA PAZ (JEP)


11 ENERO - 18 ENERO 2019


Para el Grupo Guernica, la labor desarrollada por el Sistema Integral de Verdad, Justicia, Reparación y No-Repetición de Colombia es esencial para implementar y consolidar el Acuerdo de Paz. Las víctimas del conflicto armado son el centro y la garantía de los esfuerzos por aclarar la verdad y obtener justicia por crímenes clave cometidos en el marco del conflicto armado, base imprescindible para construir una verdadera y duradera reconciliación. La Jurisdicción Especial para la Paz (JEP) tiene el potencial de desarrollar nuevos precedentes legales que puedan reconfigurar la justicia penal internacional y generar un legado fundamental en Latinoamérica.


Por todo ello, el Grupo Guernica publicará actualizaciones semanales sobre la Jurisdicción Especial para la Paz para expandir el alcance de la JEP y generar debate alrededor de los casos, los procesos judiciales y la regulación de sus diferentes salas. Los resúmenes de las noticias serán publicados tanto en inglés como en español, junto a links que enlazan a los artículos originales:


La Jurisdicción Especial para la Paz (JEP) manifiesta su rechazo y profunda preocupación frente al atentado contra la Escuela de Cadetes de Policía General Santander:


La JEP se une a todas las voces de rechazo por este acto cruel e inhumano y acompaña a las víctimas y sus familias. La JEP ha solicitado el urgente esclarecimiento de los eventos, manifestando que estos actos violentos no puede truncar la construcción de la Paz.


Jurisdicción Especial para la Paz, Comunicado a la Opinión Pública, 17 Enero 2019, disponible en: https://www.jep.gov.co/Sala-de-Prensa/Paginas/JEP-manifiesta-su-rechazo-frente-al-atentado-contra-la-Escuela-General-Santander.aspx


Con motivo del primer año de funcionamiento de la Jurisdicción Especial para la Paz, su presidenta, Patricia Linares, hace balance:


Hace un año se establecieron los 38 Magistrados de la Jurisdicción Especial para la Paz (JEP) designados para desarrollar los postulados más importantes de esta jurisdicción pactados en el Acuerdo Final de Paz: hacer Justicia, reparar a las víctimas, buscar la verdad y evitar que se repitan los hechos de violencia que dejaron a más de ocho millones de víctimas como resultado de medio Siglo de conflicto. Como una conmemoración a este hecho, la JEP realizó el 16 de Enero un balance de lo que sucedió en 2018 y los retos que asumirá para este año:


Un año después del inicio de las labores de la Magistratura, 11.675 personas han suscrito acta de sometimiento ante la JEP; de este total 9.687 son ex-combatientes de las FARC-EP, 1.938 de la Fuerza Pública, 38 de Agentes del Estado y 12 de Protesta Social. Por otro lado, La JEP recibió 168 informes que fueron entregados por parte de organizaciones de víctimas y entidades del Estado, sobre hechos ocurridos en contexto y en razón del conflicto armado, información sobre la que la JEP abrió sus primeros 5 grandes casos. La JEP ha recalcado también que estos avances no hubieran sido posibles sin el acompañamiento de las víctimas y de la comunidad internacional, y el respaldo y seguimiento de Naciones Unidas, del Sistema Interamericano de Derechos Humanos y de la Corte Penal Internacional (CPI).


En el acto, la Presidenta de la JEP, Patricia Linares recordó que la JEP es “una Jurisdicción de Paz, no de venganza”. Haga click aquí para descubrir 10 datos y anécdotas que no sabías de la JEP.


Jurisdicción Especial para la Paz, “JEP y víctimas: balance y proyección”, 17 de Enero 2019, disponible en: https://www.jep.gov.co/Sala-de-Prensa/Paginas/JEP-y-V%C3%ADctimas.-Balance-y-Proyecci%C3%B3n.aspx


Jurisdicción Especial para la Paz, “"Son muchas las acciones, decisiones y actuaciones realizadas y adoptadas por la Jurisdicción en los últimos 10 meses", Patricia Linares, presidenta de la JEP”, 17 de Enero 2019, disponible en: https://www.jep.gov.co/Sala-de-Prensa/Paginas/La-JEP-es-una-Jurisdicci%C3%B3n-para-la-Paz-Patricia-Linares.aspx


El Espectador: Redacción Colombia 2020, Un año de la Jurisdicción Especial para la Paz, 16 de Enero 2019, disponible en: https://colombia2020.elespectador.com/jep/un-ano-de-la-jurisdiccion-especial-para-la-paz


Los desafíos de la JEP, según el Centro Internacional de Justicia Transicional (ICTJ):


María Camila Moreno, Directora del Centro Internacional de Justicia Transicional (ICTJ por sus siglas en inglés), realizó una intervención en la sesión organizada por la JEP para hacer balance de su primer año, enumerando los principales desafíos que deberá enfrentar la JEP en los próximos años. El principal reto, según la Directora del ICTJ, es la visibilidad y legitimidad de la JEP ante el país.


Por otro lado, para ICTJ, es clave que la JEP explique sea clara en su propósito de investigar, juzgar y sancionar a todos los participantes del conflicto, aunque la firma del Acuerdo de Paz haya sido con las FARC-EP, lo que incluye a los desmovilizados de las antiguas AUC y civiles que participaron en las acciones criminales ocurridas en el marco y con ocasión del conflicto armado.


La Directora también trazó unos retos puntuales a algunas de las salas. A la Sala de Reconocimiento, por ejemplo, le sugirió resoluciones de conclusiones en el término de un año, pues la opinión pública y las víctimas esperan resultados en el corto y mediano plazo. Otro de los desafíos importantes, de acuerdo con el ICTJ, es que la Sala de Amnistía o Indultos oriente sus decisiones con base en los estándares internacionales de Derechos Humanos, Derecho Internacional Humanitario y Derecho Penal Internacional.


Por último, Moreno hizo un llamado de atención para identificar de dónde provendrán los recursos para llevar a cabo las sanciones restaurativas en los territorios y para garantizar la subsistencia de los comparecientes en el cumplimiento de las sentencias.


El Espectador: Redacción Colombia 2020, “Los desafíos de la JEP, según el ICTJ”, 16 de Enero, disponible en: https://colombia2020.elespectador.com/jep/los-desafios-de-la-jep-segun-el-ictj